Cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran the. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops staple. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat (Polygonaceae), quinoa (Amaranthaceae), and chia (Lamiaceae), are referred to as pseudocereals In their natural form (as in whole grain), cereals are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate. In some developing countries, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed countries, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial.The word cereal is derived from Ceres, the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain that is a worldwide staple food. There are many species of wheat that together make up the genus Triticum: the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares, 2014).World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tons making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century.
Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet. Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals, but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids. When eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber.
Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cereal, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat